Monday, June 29, 2020

The European and African Narrative Techniques used in Things Fall Apart and Petals of Blood - Literature Essay Samples

The structure of the African novel is seen to be made up from two different frameworks, the external, or international, and the indigenous â€Å"mode of discourse and artistic expression.† 1 Therefore, the typical African novel contains elements in its narrative which stem from European colonisers as well as from the customs of other African writers. The African element may even contain certain Arabic influences due to the vicinity of Arab-speaking countries. One may find such characteristics concerning the way the narrative is told to the reader in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart and NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo s Petals of Blood. The main focus of this essay shall be on determining which European or African narrative techniques are made use of in the novels and to analyze how they enhance the manner by which the story is delivered. When looking at Petals of Blood, the reader will initially be struck by how the story is told in flashbacks from the past, rather than in narration f rom the ongoing present. Although nowadays flashbacks are made use of very frequently (it is said that this narrative technique originated in the Arabian Nights stories), making use of flashbacks in Achebes and wa Thiongos books part of the African element. While the story of Ilmorog and its inhabitants is told from a future point of view, the past events develop one after the other chronologically.2 The book starts off with a reference to the present-day Ilmorog, where four people are placed under arrest, and the reader is shown a newspaper excerpt from the Daily Mouthpiece, announcing the death of three important Kenyan men.3 The following chapter takes the reader back twelve years and the development of Ilmorog is gradually shown, while the story of how the four murder suspects met each other, is slowly pieced together. The flashback method is used in order for the first chapter which takes place in the present, to make sense in the readers mind once the novel is finished. Theref ore, the reader is kept in a state of curiosity and ignorance of what is fully going on, until the very end. This enhances the reading experience of the book, which comes to resemble a detective murder mystery. Another possible reason why the author specifically picked the flashback narrative in order to reveal the events which took place throughout the twelve-year gap between the present and Muniras emergence in Ilmorog is that the past would demonstrate what led certain actions to take place.4 Again, this is to facilitate the readers understanding of the ending. The reader is able to link Muniras â€Å"night vigil on the mountain†5 announced on the first page of the novel and also Wanjas cries about a fire6 to the final flashback where Munira heads towards Ilmorog Hill after he sets Wanjas whorehouse on fire7. On the other hand, the use of flashbacks is not as prominent in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart; however, one may find important instances of this narrative techniq ue, for example in the first chapter when Okonkwos father is described as a â€Å"failure† whose â€Å"wife and children had barely enough to eat†8, and also in chapter nine, when Ezinma directs the medicine man to the â€Å"exact spot† where her iyi-uwa is buried.9 In the first flashback mentioned, the reader is allowed a peek inside Okonkwos past so as to understand his persistence to become the epitome of masculinity in Umuofia and the surrounding nine villages. The flashback narrating Ekwefis numerous miscarriages and Ezinmas iyi-uwa gives more light to Okonkwos family history, and enlightens the reader about certain traditions and superstitions in Okonkwos tribe, since this relates to the theme of the friction between African and European religions. Just as in Petals of Blood, the flashback narrative is employed in Achebes novel in order to give the reader necessary information to understand the various characters decisions and performance in the novel. Ano ther aspect associated with African narrative techniques is the way that African writers do not create simply one hero or protagonist throughout the entire book. In both Things Fall Apart and Petals of Blood, one may find that the main hero of both novels is the â€Å"collective entity† of both Ilmorog and Umuofia.10 The idea of a collective hero is closely linked to one of the main themes which characterizes both Achebes and wa Thiongos books – the idea of struggling against the invading colonizers. It does not fight the closure of a thematic past, which goes against Fanons beliefs of the need to recover their past and debunk the colonial myth that African history and culture is unimportant. The element of the collective hero, however, suggests a continuing struggle and unity in spite of the changing times and conventions.11 NgÃ… ©gÄ © endeavored to find a narrative technique which would urge the people to gather together and inspire them to fight for their own right s. This element is also evident in Fanon when he insists that the colonized writer must become â€Å"a galvanizer of people† rather than letting them slide into passivity.12 Fanon called this kind of narration â€Å"literature of combat,† as it inspires awareness at a national level and encourages the struggle for liberty.13 Therefore, the author uses literature as a collective voice belonging to the Africans, in a plea for rights and freedom. In Petals of Blood, one may see the element of the collective hero take place several times. Plot-wise, this can be seen in the journey of the inhabitants of Ilmorog towards Nairobi, in order to ask the MP for help. The people of Ilmorog were of the idea that â€Å"it is [their] turn to make things happen.†14 One may also view the songs sung by the community as another characteristic of the collective narrative technique, as the songs unite the entire village through language. A good example occurs during the festivities f or the ceremony of the circumcision, where Njugana sings a couple of verses, and is answered by a chorus.15 The element of the collective voice is present also in Things Fall Apart; certain critics have also pointed out that the narrator of this novel has â€Å"no persona at all,† nor is it given an age, sex, or any other attributes by which it can be described.16 This narrator is often described as a character who exists in events which carry a meaning to the members of a particular settlement, and who also represents these communities preoccupations and ideologies.17 Therefore, the narrator is disembodied because his purpose is to symbolize the whole settlement in general. Like the narrator of Petals of Blood, the narrator in Things Fall Apart is there to give a voice to the people of Umuofia. The unity which binds the community is seen throughout the novel, for instance in the way that the â€Å"ekwe talk[s] to the clan† in order to announce Ezeudus death to the en tire village, not just to one specific individual.18 This shows how separate beings contribute in the making of one unit – their clan, in this case Umuofia. On the other hand, community events, such as wrestling matches, are accompanied by songs sung by the present crowd, in order to honor the winner.19 This aspect is identical to the songs sung by the people of Ilmorog in Petals of Blood. Both novels include this narrative technique, in which the author is giving the community a shared spirit, since they can unite not only in their celebrations, but also in their struggle for a better life. One further feature worth considering is the use of foreshadowing. Foreshadowing is used in order to develop tension in the novel, as it hints to the reader what events may take place later on in the narration. It also creates coherence throughout the novel. Examples of foreshadowing appear in old texts such as the epic of Gilgamesh and in Sophocless Oedipus the King20, making foreshadowing intrinsically a European narrative technique, unlike the use of the flashback and the collective voice. Foreshadowing may be found in both Petals of Blood and Things Fall Apart and it gives the reader and idea of certain important themes or events going on in the novels. The first epigraph for Part One of Petals of Blood is a biblical quote which speaks of how â€Å"a white horsecame forth conquering† and again of â€Å"a pale horse: and he that sat/ upon him, his name was Death†21 These quotations from the Book of Revelations foreshadow the destruction which follows the colonization of Kenya by the Europeans, and how the Africans end up being oppressed by their conquerors. One may see the word Death as a metaphoric death of African history and culture, as seen in the episode of Chuis appearance as the headmaster of the school in Siriana. Chui â€Å"did notwant to hear any more nonsense about African teachers, African history, African literature, African this and African that,†22 and his outward appearance is described as â€Å"a black replica of Fraudsham.†23 This biblical imagery evoking the idea of an apocalypse, as well as the idea of a â€Å"worm-eaten flower†24 suggests an external force draining the life and resources out of Kenya. This metaphor makes more sense to the reader when it becomes clearer that Ilmorog and Kenya are being exploited by the European colonizers and by the Kenyan elite, who seek to please the afore-mentioned conquerors for their own benefit.25 The fact that the colonizers are aiming not to bring the light to th e African nations, but to kill off anything which may help their development, is foreshadowed from the beginning of the novel, and the events of the novel strengthen its resonances. The element of foreshadowing in Things Fall Apart is coincidentally also related to colonialism. Obierka describes the white colonizers as being as white as a â€Å"piece of chalk† and that according to hearsay, they â€Å"have no toes.†26 Machi responds by joking that one of these rumored white people is Amadi, a leper. Achebe concludes the chapter with the comment that â€Å"the polite name for leprosy was the white skin.†27 The fact that it is the final sentence for the chapter, leads the reader to wonder whether it holds any deeper meaning, and that it is not just a casual joke or remark. In fact, Richard J. Lane suggests that this may be foreshadowing the invasion and aggression of the colonizers, in quite an intricate manner. Achebe makes it clear that the white chalk is used by guests to draw â€Å"lines on the floor† before eating kola nuts. Lane states that the action of marking lines is a symbol of â€Å"boundary-making.† 28 This foreshadows the episode of the white man as a guest in the area, and given a reputedly cursed piece of land in the Evil Forest to build their church, outside the limits of their community. As time went by, the guest started to infiltrate the land as the colonizers beliefs and ideologies spread among the Africans29; for example Nwoye forsakes his former life and family to embrace Christianity30. Thus the white colonizer starts to chalk down his own boundaries of his own while conquering more ground. The idea that the white skin is a reminder of leprosy also foreshadows how the colonizers will spread among Umuofia and the neighboring villages like a disease.31 In fact, while Okonkwo was in exile, Obierika brings him the news that â€Å"Abame has been wiped out.†32 The colonizer here is very similar to lepr osy, as the latter obliterates body parts, and the Europeans have annihilated an entire village. One must remember how a village is very much like a body as every individual is required to make the settlement whole, and therefore, Achebes image of the leprosy used to foreshadow the colonizers destruction, is very apt. The fact that foreshadowing, a European narrative technique, is used by both NgÃ… ©gÄ © and Achebe specifically to make the reader aware of the devastation brought about by the Europeans themselves, is very ironic and telling in itself. The reason why the authors opted for this method to construct their novel is perhaps to reach out to the international readers, and to show other Europeans what is actually going on in Africa. An important element one must discuss when looking at Petals of Blood and Things Fall Apart is the point of view through which the narration unfolds. NgÃ… ©gÄ © decided to tell his story through a multiplicity of viewpoints, where the past of t he four main characters Munira, Karega, Wanja and Abdullah is exhibited to the reader as the narration unravels. While the reader is conveniently placed in one of the characters minds, and therefore allowed to see the world through his or her perspective, the elements which built up this particular protagonist start to emerge and connect with the present, allowing the reader to make sense of the situation. A relevant example can be seen in Wanjas unconscious mumbling in the hospital when saying,â€Å"FireFireMy mothers sistermy dear aunt.†33 At a later stage in the novel, the reader is privileged to learn through her point of view, that Wanjas fear of fire stems from the fact that her aunt, who was a freedom fighter, was killed by a fire.34 Ironically, it is fire which frees Wanja from the immoral constraints of the whorehouse.35 The manner by which NgÃ… ©gÄ © executed his novel is very popular in contemporary literature, especially those found in Europe and America, there fore his choice of perspective is another European feature in his novel. On the other hand, while the sense of multiple perspectives is not prevalent in Things Fall Apart, this does not mean that its point of view is not complex enough to analyze. Written with misleadingly simple vocabulary, the narration is mostly channeled through the omniscient third-person narrator, as the teller of the story is aware of everything the characters think and feel. One may note how for instance in the introductory statement, â€Å"Okonkwo was well known throughout the nine villages and even beyondUmuofia to Mbaino†36 the main characters description completely lacks any authorial comments. According to Dannenberg this suggests that Achebe is using an omnipresent narrator who is made up of what the local people say about Okonkwo and his achievements.37 When the narrator goes on to describe Okonkwos behavior towards his family, he comments about how he â€Å"ruled his household with a heavy ha nd† and how his wives and children â€Å"lived in perpetual fear† of his tempestuous personality. Here the narrator is speaking his own voice and that of Okonkwos families, giving the reader two different sides of Okonkwo on which the reader may ponder.38 Therefore, the narrator seems to be giving the reader snippets of what different people are thinking at the time, rather than what the author himself thinks. The reader will be able to construct the characters and the plot solely through what is going on on the novel. The third-person omniscient point of view is one of the most flexible narrative techniques and is widely used in both European and African literature. One may see, therefore, how both Chinua Achebe and NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo made use of both African and European narrative elements when writing their books. A reason for this may be the fact that the variety of elements contributes towards the universality of the book, as it makes its content familiar with both African and European readers. Therefore, the message of the book is effectively and efficiently delivered to readers from a wider geographical area, as the use of both African and European elements allows more readers to engage the books in a better manner. One may safely assume that the purpose of both books is that people are made aware of the real objectives of the colonizers and what the colonized Africans are going through, and this message must reach not only the African reader but the European as well. ReferencesAchebe, Chinua, Things Fall Apart (London: Penguin Books, 2010)Dannenberg, Hilary, The Many Voices of Things Fall Apart, Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 11 (2009) Fanon, Frantz, Speech by Frantz Fanon at the Congress of Black African Writers, 1959Wretched of the Earth: Reciprocal Bases of National Culture and the Fight for Freedom (n.d.) [accessed 11 June 2016]Gikandi, Simon, Reading Chinua Achebe: Language Ideology in Fiction (Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 2002)Knight, Elisabeth, Kenya, in European-language Writing in Sub-Saharan Africa, Part 2, ed. by Albert S. Gà ©rard (Budapest: Akadà ©miai Kiadà ³ 1986), pp. 887-921Lane, Richard J., The Postcolonial Novel (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006)Lovesey, Oliver, The Postcolonial Intellectual: NgÃ… ©gÄ © Wa Thiong’o in Context (Oxon: Routledge, 2016)Matus, Douglas, What Is the Origin of Foreshadowing? (Demand Media, 2014) [accessed 15 June 2016]Mnthali, Felix, Narrative Design in the Africa n Novel, in An Introduction to the African Prose Narrative, ed. by Lokangaka Losambe (South Africa: Africa World Press, Inc., 2004), pp.29-43 Nicholls, Brendon, NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Gender, and the Ethics of Postcolonial Reading (Oxon: Routledge, 2016) Ogude, James, Ngugis Novels And African History: Narrating the Nation (London: Pluto Press, 1999) wa Thiongo, NgÃ… ©gÄ ©, Petals of Blood (London: Penguin Books, 1977)Williams, Patrick, NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999) 1Felix Mnthali, Narrative Design in the African Novel, in An Introduction to the African Prose Narrative, ed. by Lokangaka Losambe (South Africa: Africa World Press, Inc., 2004), pp.29-43 (p.29). 2Elisabeth Knight, Kenya, in European-language Writing in Sub-Saharan Africa, Part 2, ed. by Albert S. Gà ©rard (Budapest: Akadà ©miai Kiadà ³ 1986), pp. 887-921 (p.919). 3NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Petals of Blood (London: Penguin Books, 1977), p. 6. 4Patrick Williams, NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999), p.78. 5wa Thiongo, p.3. 6Ibid., p.4. 7Ibid., p.395. 8Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (London: Penguin Books, 2010), p.5. 9Ibid., p.78. 10Elisabeth Knight, Kenya, in European-language Writing in Sub-Saharan Africa, Part 2, ed. by Albert S. Gà ©rard (Budapest: Akadà ©miai Kiadà ³ 1986), pp. 887-921 (p.917). 11Oliver Lovesey, The Postcolonial Intellectual: NgÃ… ©gÄ © Wa Thiong’o in Context (Oxon: Routledge, 2016), p.103. 12Ibid., p.104. 13Frantz Fanon, Speech by Frantz Fanon at the Congress of Black African Writers, 1959Wretched of the Earth: Reciprocal Bases of National Culture and the Fight for Freedom (n.d.) [accessed 11 June 2016]. 14NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Petals of Blood (London: Penguin Books, 1977), p. 138. 15Ibid., p.247. 16Simon Gikandi, Reading Chinua Achebe: Language Ideology in Fiction (Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 2002), p.44. 17Ibid., p.44. 18Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (London: Penguin Books, 2010), pp. 113-4. 19Ibid., p. 48. 20Douglas Matus, What Is the Origin of Foreshadowing? (Demand Media, 2014) [accessed 15 June 2016]. 21NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Petals of Blood (London: Penguin Books, 1977), p. 1. 22Ibid., p. 206. 23Ibid., p. 205. 24Ibid., p. 26. 25Brendon Nicholls, NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Gender, and the Ethics of Postcolonial Reading (Oxon: Routledge, 2016), p.132. 26Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (London: Penguin Books, 2010), p.69. 27Ibid., p. 70. 28Richard J. Lane, The Postcolonial Novel (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006), p.41. 29Ibid., p. 41. 30Achebe, p. 144. 31Richard J. Lane, The Postcolonial Novel (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006), p.41. 32Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (London: Penguin Books, 2010), p.69. 33NgÃ… ©gÄ © wa Thiongo, Petals of Blood (London: Penguin Books, 1977), p.5. 34Ibid., p. 278. 35James Ogude, Ngugis Novels And African History: Narrating the Nation (London: Pluto Press, 1999), p.122. 36Achebe. p. 3. 37Hilary Dannenberg, The Many Voices of Things Fall Apart, Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 11 (2009) (p.177). 38Ibid., p. 177.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Computer Virus and Prentice Hall Essay - 5664 Words

AssignStudent# 11469947 Name: Neel Nand Subject:ITC595 Assessment#: 1 Student# 11469947 Name: Neel Nand Subject:ITC595 Assessment#: 1 ment 1 ITC595 Information Security Question 1. Reports of computer security failures appear frequently in the daily new. Cite a reported failure that exemplified one (or more) of the principles listed in the chapter: easiest penetration, adequate protection, effectiveness, weakest link. There has been a lot of reports of security breaches in the news, for example the Sony Playstation Network, RSA Lockheed Martin compromise, Hyundai and so on, these have been of recent and these all show how vulnerable we are to security threats out there on the world wide web which has very little to do with†¦show more content†¦| | e | | | | | | | e | r | | | | e | r | | | | | | | a | r | | | e | | | | | e | | | | | | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | | | | o | r | s | | e | | | | s | e | s | | | | | | e | r | o | f | f | e | r | Posiible Combinations | | | | | | a | r | s | | e | | | | s | e | s | | | | | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | | | | o | r | n | | e | | | | n | e | n | | | | | | e | r | o | f | f | e | r | | | | | | | a | r | n | | e | | | | n | e | n | | | | | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | | | | o | r | t | | e | | | | t | e | t | | | | | | e | r | o | f | f | e | r | | | | | | | a | r | t | | e | | | | t | e | t | | | | | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | h | | | a | r | t | | e | | | | t | e | t | | | | h | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | h | i | | a | r | t | | e | | | i | t | e | t | | | | h | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | h | n | | a | r | t | | e | | | n | t | e | t | | | | h | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | h | o | | a | r | t | | e | | | o | t | e | t | | | | h | | e | r | a | d | d | e | r | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | i | | | a | r | t | | e | | | | t | e | t | | | | i | | e | r | a | d | d | e |Show MoreRelatedTrojan Horse and Trojan Virus Essay1261 Words   |  6 PagesTrojan Horse and Trojan Virus. 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Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Poverty in Pakistan Causes and Consequences - 1610 Words

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Essay1046 Words   |  5 Pagesa developing country to see whether this measure is reliable. The countries that will be compared are United States (a developed country) and Pakistan (a developing country). The demographic measures such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate, natural increase rate, and the crude birth rate will be us ed to compare why U.S is more developed than Pakistan. To begin with, life expectancy is an average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality rates. The higher theRead MoreForms Of Violence Against Women1210 Words   |  5 Pages Forms of Violence Against Women Introduction In Pakistan, women live in a confined world that is structured by family, tribal, and religious customs. As such, women are subjected to not only violence but also discrimination on a daily basis. This has been brought about by the interpretation of Islam, the main religion in the country, which views women as persons needing maximum protection. This consequently leads to their oppression emotionally, physically, and mentally. They face various formsRead MoreHorrifying Weather and Natural Disasters Essay examples608 Words   |  3 PagesNatural Disasters can cause many different catastrophic effects to many developing countries. Reason for this because of a strained economy which has to use to provide most relief and other aid cripples their economics, as these countries are ravished by debt, poverty in many communities and a collapsing social services system. People have a huge influence on natural disasters and are the ones who cause it to occur. One of the most terrible consequences that take place is lifeRead MoreNegative Effects Of Child Labor In Ghana1583 Words   |  7 Pagesschool. Although it is obvious that child labor is a kind of child abuse that threatens the lives of children, it still remains prevalent in some countries, especially in developing countries. This paper will focus on analyzing the situation in Ghana, Pakistan, and Jordan. I will argue that child labor should be banned in all nations because it has a negative impact on children’s lives, especially on their education, as well as physical and mental health. Child Labor in Ghana. According to The GuardianRead Moreâ€Å"You can avoid reality, but you can not avoid the consequences of avoiding the reality† (Ayn Rand,1000 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"You can avoid reality, but you can not avoid the consequences of avoiding the reality† (Ayn Rand, 1905-1982). In Moth Smoke by Mohsin Hamid, the air-conditioning is one of the most significant details in the novel that represents some of the themes that Hamid wants to emphasize. Besides jewelry, enormous house, and high-priced car air-conditioner is one of the elements that distinguish wealth from poverty. More than that, one of the reasons why Mumtaz falls in love with Daru relates to the air-conditionerRead MoreCauses of Street Crime746 Words   |  3 PagesCauses of street crimes The major causes are unemployment and illiteracy rate but there are some other factors too like lawlessness, fundamentalism, backwardness and double standards prevailing in the society. People around the world always think of Pakistannis as terrorists- we arent all like that. Yes, I agree that there is a high crime rate, however, most Pakistannis in the lesser civilised areas of Pakistan suffer from extreme depths of poverty, which is somewhat the main reason for high

Thursday, May 14, 2020

D.h. Lawrence Essay - 757 Words

An English novelist and poet, D.H. Lawrence was born September 11, 1885, in Nottingham, England. He was the son of a coal miner and a school teacher. His mother, the school teacher, was socially superior. She constantly tried to alienate her children from their father. The difference in social status between his parent’s was a recurrent motif in Lawrence’s fiction. David Herbert was ranked among the most influential and controversial literary figures of the Victorian Period. In his more than forty books, Lawrence celebrated his vision of the natural, whole human being, opposing the modern society. This opposition of society was used to write books, stories, poems of the heightened sensation and emotion he felt. D.H. Lawrence believed in†¦show more content†¦amp;#9;His writing contained heightened sensation. D.H. Lawrence liked to leave his reader’s hanging on to the moment, to continue reading to find out what would happen next. In the story The Shadow i n the Rose Garden, readers may become filled with an air of sensation as they read of the relationship between the woman and her old lover. She is visiting an old courting place of the lover she thought was dead. In meeting him she is filled with horror because he is not the same man she once loved amp;quot;Seeing his hands, with the ring she knew so well upon the little finger, she felt as if she were going dazed. The whole world was deranged. She sat unavailing. For his hands, her symbols of passionate love, filled her with a horror as they rested now on his strong thighs.amp;quot; Also an example of this heightened sensation would be in one of his most notorious novels, Lady Chatterly’s Lover. This book was filled with the sensations between a member of nobility and her husband’s gamekeeper. It was also tabooed for it’s sex words and sexual liberation. Another example that was also tabooed, yet showed heightened sensation, would be Women in Love, which explored the relationships between men and women. Many of his works created a heightened sensation to keep the reader involved. amp;#9;David Herbert Lawrence’s work showed much emotion. Again, much emotion between theShow MoreRelated D.H. Lawrence Essay943 Words   |  4 Pagesa peaceful simple people.  Ã‚  D.H. Lawrence found this culture a wonder, and he portrays it in â€Å"Mornings in Mexico.†Ã‚  Ã‚  D.H. traveled all around the world and found that New Mexico was his favorite place.  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Mornings in Mexico† by David Herbert Lawrence reflects upon the culture, religion, and other â€Å"white† influences over the people that the work portrays. David Herbert Lawrence was born on September 11th, 1885.  Ã‚  He was the fourth child and he had two older brothers.  Ã‚  D.H. was always second to his olderRead MoreExploring the Works of D.H. Lawrence Essay1866 Words   |  8 Pagesmanic truth, the reflection of himself, that D.H. Lawrence thrusts forward in the collections of essays entitled Phoenix and Phoenix II. The processes of his mind invite inquiry. To Lawrence, conversation with a person is seldom the best way to know that person. Rather, we come to know a person more fully by a process of reading him-absorbing the subtleties of his life, and extrapolating these into a portrait of his mind. In his writing, Lawrence grants the opportunity for us to read him, inRead More Sons and Lovers by D.H. Lawrence Essays6130 Words   |  25 PagesSons and Lovers by D.H. Lawrence THE PLOT In the rolling hills and coal-pitted fields of central England, known as the British Midlands, live the Morels, a poor mining family. The family has just moved down in the world from the nearby village of Bestwood to the Bottoms, a complex of working-class row houses. Gertrude Morel is a small, stern woman, pregnant with her third child, Paul, the protagonist of this novel. The Morels other children are William and Annie. But unlike his siblingsRead MoreThe Rocking Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence Essay1000 Words   |  4 Pagesovershadowed by the aspiration of money and consumerism. Families provide their household’s financial needs, but neglect the emotional aspects. The overpowering need for money takes a toll on families. D.H Lawrence’s short story explores the dynamics of money and its psychological toll. The story’s unhappy family in D.H Lawrence’s short story, â€Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner†, demonstrates the adverse psychological effects that derive from the insatiable desire of money and mindless consumerism. The stories dissatisfiedRead MoreNature in Sons and Lovers by D.H. Lawrence2490 Words   |  10 PagesIn his introduction to The Letters of D.H. Lawrence, (Aldous Huxley, 1932) declared that Lawrence was ‘above all a great literary artist†¦one of the greatest English writers of any time.’ Born in Eastwood near Nottingham, England on the 11th of September, 1885, D. H. Lawrence wrote novels that presented the dehumanizing effect of industrial culture and preached a glorified union with nature along with its corollary, sexual fulfilment. His experience growing up in a coal-mining family provided muchRead MoreConformity in The Rocking-Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence Essay821 Words   |  4 PagesIn The Rocking-Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence, the family was unable to see what they really had going for them. Corrupted Conformity Many times, people believe that they must achieve a certain social status within a community due to the need of acceptance, or perhaps, simply the fear of being rejected. Communities normally demonstrate a positive atmosphere. They are supposed to be places where everyone knows and is kind to one another; one where people feel comfortable with each otherRead MoreAnalysis of The Rocking Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence1723 Words   |  7 PagesJust Keep Rocking Individuals have struggled with ignorance time and time again, and this ignorance can penetrate every aspect of their lives. In the short story by D. H. Lawrence, â€Å"The Rocking-Horse Winnerâ€Å", young Paul has to encounter a series of misfortunate events, due to the fact that his beloved ambitious mother is unworthy of the what she has and each circumstance leads him and his family to great distress. With a burden on his shoulders, he will not stop until he gets what his mother desperatelyRead MoreAn Abrupt and Surprising Ending in The Rocking Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence753 Words   |  3 Pagesnowhere with enough malice to cause the death of thousands of people a day. This has become a very great trend for authors, the act of sudden disasters that will slap you in the face as you read them. In the story, â€Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner† by D.H. Lawrence is a fantastic tale of how a small boy changes the terrible fate of his family by betting on horses. He was able t o guess the winners of the horse races by rocking on his small wooden horse and picturing the winner which he was right, every timeRead MoreSnake by D.H. Lawrence1218 Words   |  5 PagesHillary Taylor English 1302/Vasbinder June 9, 2012 Essay 1/TPCAST/Final I’m Sorry My Snake In the poem â€Å"Snake,† D.H. Lawrence will discuss someone who has wronged him or done something deceitful to him. As one can see in the following paragraph, Lawrence’s poem â€Å"Snake,† is about the narrator’s encounter with a venomous snake at a water trough. The narrator appears to be a man who owns the water trough, and comes to it quite often. Once he arrives at the trough, the narrator sees that heRead More The Blind Man by D.H. Lawrence Essay877 Words   |  4 PagesThe Blind Man – And the Blind Shall see The story The Blind Man by D.H. Lawrence can be read at many levels.nbsp; On the surface, the story is about the struggles of Maurice Pervin as he learns to cope with the loss of his sight. On a much deeper level, it can be seen that Maurice is closed in by his blindness and it is through another mans weakness that he begins to â€Å"see† again. To understand the meaning of The Blind Man, one must first try to understand Maurice Pervin. He has spent

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay Research on Marijuana - 684 Words

Research on Marijuana Everyone believes Marijuana is a gateway drug. However, some people think it is not because they believe they will not use anything else. If we do not fide some form of way to get rid of this drug or if we make it legal our future generations will suffer. As of now our brains get affected. A solution would be to find away to get rid of this drug and not to make it legal. Marijuana has been around for centuries now and it still grows in use. People say it is good for the body because it helps the body fight of disease and many other things like pain. Marijuana is a very powerful drug and it is believed that it is a gateway drug. This simply means that once your tolerance is so high you will look†¦show more content†¦Marijuana became more popular in the early 20th century and as grown in use. When marijuana became popular officials tried to control in under the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937. This act just stated that if you were using it for medical reason that you had to pay tax for it. So, to me it sound like we have given in before but eventually saw that it was being abused. Adolescents and young adults started increasing in marijuana usage in the late 60?s and early 70?s. During this time another act was passed which divided drigs into five catagoreis. Marijuana was placed uner the first catagory. That catagory stated and I quote ? drugs with higher potenial for abuse and no accepted medical use.? But in 1972 the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Legalization which discriminalize marijuana petitioned that marijuana be moved from catagory 1 to catagory 2 but were denied the grant. The reason for this petition was that marijuana could be used as a theraputic medicine and because it was less toxic and was more effecient than conventional medicine. Since the National Oranization for the Reform of Marijuana came out in 1972 with the petition a variety of legal decision concerning marijuana have been handled. After that year 11 states decriminalized the use of marijuana during the early 70?s and late 70?s only to go back and recriminalize the use of marijuana in the 80?s andShow MoreRelatedMarijuana Research Paper1281 Words   |  6 PagesThe Legalization of Marijuana Lately it seems that drug policy and the war on drugs has been in the headlines continuously. Policies in United States government takes against illegal drugs are coming into question. Marijuana laws have been enacted since 1937, that’s over 75 years of prohibition. But in 1996, California passed Proposition 215, legalizing the use of prescription medical marijuana. Just like the failed attempt of alcohol prohibition, marijuana is now rising as the most popular drugRead MoreResearch Proposal On Medical Marijuana1094 Words   |  5 PagesFlorence Mbah Faculty Advisor: Dr. Flora Estes Topic: Medicinal Marijuana a growing field of interest Title: Chronic Pain and the use of Medicinal Marijuana vs Opioids Introduction and Purpose of study: Medicinal marijuana has been garnering a lot of attention as 29 states and Washington D.C have legalized medical marijuana and most recently in 2016, eight (8) states have now approved recreational marijuana. Medicinal marijuana is currently being used for the treatment of many diseases such asRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana Research Paper1726 Words   |  7 PagesMarijuana is a very popular drug that many people have used. Over 98 million people over the age of 12 in the United States have smoked marijuana. It is known under many different names such as: weed, bud, ganja, hashish, doobie, reefer, mary-jane and grass. It plays quite a substantial role in modern day pop culture and almost everyone over the age of 16 knows what it is. Despite all this, marijuana is illegal and in most states a person can be sent to jail for the possession of less than a gramRead MoreResearch Essay on Legalization of Marijuana1979 Words   |  8 PagesLegalization of Marijuana: Risky or Beneficial ? Tammy Russ COM/156 January 15, 2012 Dierdre McKee Legalization of Marijuana A random telephone poll conducted by CBS News in October 2011 revealed that 77% of those polled believe that doctors should be allowed to prescribe marijuana for serious illnesses. This compares to 65% just one year prior (, 2011). Popular opinion that marijuana should be legalized for medicinal purposes is shifting as the positive aspects of enactingRead MoreResearch Paper On Medical Marijuana1556 Words   |  7 Pages Research paper on medical marijuana The term medical marijuana means the use of marijuana prescribed to a person by a doctor and only used for medical reasons. But its uses have been around since 2737 B.C., when the emperor of china, Shen Neng, put cannabis tea as a treatment for malaria and poor memory. After this the popularity of the drug being used for medical reason spread throughout Asia then to the middle east and further spread to africaRead MoreResearch Paper Marijuana Legalization2495 Words   |  10 PagesAbstract Marijuana is the people’s drug of choice; it’s the most popular drug of all the drugs. Made famous in movies (Cheech and Chong), hit an all-time boom in the 60’s when smoke to rebel against law enforcement. It is popular even though it is illegal in the United States; I explain in this paper why we should take advantage of its popularity and help our struggling economy. How we can use the way Amsterdam regulates its recreational marijuana, and implement it in the United States. ViolenceRead MoreMarijuana Legalization Research Paper2751 Words   |  12 PagesShould Marijuana be legalized in the U.S.? Grass, skunk, kush, mary jane, chronic: just a few of the slang terms for Marijuana. Marijuana (of Indian origin) is the brown, green and gray assimilation of dried leaves, seeds, and stems. This plant is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States of America, and the third most used recreational drug behind only tobacco and alcohol. It has been used by nearly 100 million Americans. According to government surveys, some 25 million AmericansRead MoreEssay on Research on Legalizing Marijuana1492 Words   |  6 PagesLegalize It Lobdell 1 Legalize It Legalizing Marijuana has been a controversial and extremely volatile topic ever since the 1970’s. Many people hold strong beliefs regarding this topic and the subsequent laws that have been passed in certain states for the use of the recreational drug. However, marijuana is not just a recreational drug, but has many different wonderful medical purposes for the American people. Marijuana should be legalized for recreational and medical purposes throughout this countryRead MoreResearch on the Legalization of Marijuana Essay examples3086 Words   |  13 PagesResearch on the Legalization of Marijuana Americans have been trying to legalize marijuana for years. It seems that all of their opinions divide into three basic groups. Many think that it is not worth legalizing marijuana, many seem to think it should be legalized, and a group of people say it should only be legalized for medicinal purposes. In the following paragraphs I will try to show you reason for all three opinions. My hopes of doing this research project were to specifically determineRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana: A Controversial Research Topic3448 Words   |  14 Pagesï » ¿Legalization  Marijuana   Table of Contents Marketing of Two Brands based on Consumer Buying Behavior Models 3 History/Background 3 Different forms of Marijuana/how is it integrated 6 Long term health issues if any 7 Arguments for Legalization 9 Arguments against legalization 10 Other Countries approaches to legalization of marijuana 11 What is your position on this issue and why 11 References 12 Marketing of Two Brands based on Consumer Buying Behavior Models History/Background

The Things They Carried Essay - 1838 Words

Christian Hernandez Professor Sarah Cantrell English 1102 â€Å"The Things They Carried†: Emotional side The story of The Things They Carried written by Tim O’Brien gives a good outlook on how the Soldiers feel and think during the war . The story describes the different things that the soldiers carry with them while at war. O’Brien talks about the different items in great detail such as weight, color, shape and size but he also gives extraordinary details about not only their personalities, but even more about their emotions with the personal things they carried with them. Every single object that the men carry when they go to war plays an emotional touch in their lives. There are certain things that they carried†¦show more content†¦I keep that in my pocket, just to get me through.† (Koppel 2003). â€Å"Ive got a teddy bear my wife sent to me for Valentines Day, a big man with a soft voice says, sharing the lucky charm that he keeps safe from the sand in a zip-lock bag. The little brown bear holds a heart stitched with gold xs and os. Hugs and kisses, the soldier says, as trucks gear up in the desert beside him† (Koppel 2003). Not only Lieutenant Cross or the soldiers in the story â€Å"The Things They Carried† share these similarities but perhaps all the soldiers in the world share it when it comes to emotional feelings related with a personal thing. They take these memorable and meaningful things with them that perhaps for some people is nothing big, but for them, it is basically their life and like a fellow soldier mention, just to get them through. Not only have those things played an emotional feeling in the soldiers live but also a little bit of their background. Out of all the sacrifices that the soldiers make, the cultural side also plays a huge part. They have to do things that they are not used to such as taking a shower with cold water or even not taking a shower for days. Also, eating can food or different types of food that they are not familiar with. O’Brian takes you to a whole new level when he describes the necessary things they carry â€Å" Among the necessities orShow MoreRelatedThe Things They Carried in the Things They Carried1141 Words   |  5 PagesThe Things They Carried in â€Å"The Things They Carried,† by Tim O’Brien In â€Å"The Things They Carried,† by Tim O’Brien the theme of â€Å"carrying† both physical and emotional objects by the main characters can be found in the novel. While these men carry the same standard physical army gear, they differentiate with personal tangible and intangible items. From Lieutenant Cross’s responsibility of his men, to Henry Dobbin’s girlfriend’s pantyhose for its magic, each man faced the war with these things attachedRead MoreThe Things They Carried880 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel The Things They Carried by Tim OBrien the author tells about his experiences in the Vietnam war by telling various war stories. The quote, It has been said of war that it is a world where the past has a strong grip on the present, where machines seemed sometimes to have more will power than me, where nice boys (girls) were attracted to them, where bodies ruptured and burned and stand, where the evil thing trying to kill you could look d isconnecting human and where except in your imaginationRead MoreThings They Carried1106 Words   |  5 PagesThe Things They Carried Report â€Å"The Things They Carried† was a story about soldiers caught in the confusion of the Vietnam War. There are a lot of apparent themes that are dealt with when writing a story about war, especially about death. I enjoyed reading this story; however there were some things about it that I was concerned about. I would like to discuss the author’s style of writing, his meaning of the title â€Å"The Things They Carried† and the way the author and his characters deal with deathRead More Things They Carried Essay: Strength in The Things They Carried980 Words   |  4 PagesStrength in The Things They Carried  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Everybody has to deal with adversity at some point in their lives. The adversity that they go through varies from person to person. For First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, he had to make it through the Vietnam War alive. In the short story, The Things They Carried, where Cross draws his strength from is somewhat unclear. He seems strong at the beginning of the story, but then again, he also seems to be gaining strength towards the end of the story. ThisRead MoreThe Things They Carried1417 Words   |  6 PagesSpring Book Review In The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien tells the tale of not about war, but rather about war’s effect on one’s mentality. Ultimately, this novel is built on a foundation of the items that the soldiers of the Vietnam War carried. Whether it was the way Jimmy Cross uses the pebble to escape from his duties as a soldier or when Norman Bowker realizes that courage comes form within, not from receiving a Silver Star; O’Brien uses baggage as a symbol throughout the book to teachRead MoreThe Things They Carried2220 Words   |  9 Pagesand all you can do is whimper and wait.† (211) This passage has great meaning to how the soldiers felt toward one another. They did not have friends but they all knew how everyone felt because they were all simultaneously going through the same thing at the same time. The passage fits great in this novel because it gives great detail and imagery on how the characters Azar and Bobby Jorgenson felt toward one another. Strong relationships were developed and felt almost as if they were all one personRead MoreThings They Carried2289 Words   |  10 PagesTim OBrien does a fantastic job of blurring the lines of what is true and what is fiction in The Things They Carried. In fact, he often points out that he has made entire stories up, after the fact. He defends his decisions by proposing that what he has done is, in fact, not lie, but rather tell a story-truth. He argues that his reason for doing this is to bring the story to life more than it could live through the happening-truth. I want you to feel what I felt. I want you to kno w why story-truthRead MoreEssay On The Things They Carried1624 Words   |  7 PagesFor the seventeen Soldiers portrayed in â€Å"The Things We Carried† by Tim O’Brien, the physical pain was very minimal weight to carry compared to the emotional scars that they will carry throughout their entire life. This story does an amazing job portraying full human emotion that anyone put into a situation would feel, such as heavy guilt, sadness, anger, lack of motivation, perseverance, horror, and false security. All of these are notorious feelings that every soldier back in history, and now stillRead MoreEssay on The Things They Carried515 Words   |  3 PagesThe Things They Carried The Things They Carried, by Tim OBrien, is a generalization of his own experiences in Vietnam although the story itself is a work of fiction there is still much to be learned from it. Through the actions of soldiers in The Things They Carried we can begin to explore the effect war has on the human condition and the toll it plays on their minds. Some of the themes in the book, The Things They Carried, are bravery and what true bravery is, truth and how the manipulationRead MoreThe Things They Carried Essay1015 Words   |  5 PagesThe text, ‘The Things They Carried, is an excellent example which reveals how individuals are changed for the worse through their first hand experience of war. Following the lives of the men both during and after the war in a series of short stories, the impact of the war is accurately portrayed, and provides a rare insight into the guilt stricken minds of soldiers. ‘The Things They Carried shows the impact of the war in its many forms: the suicide of an ex-soldier upon his return home; the lessening

Workplace Communication Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the Workplace Communication. Answer: Introduction In this essay, the topic is about workplace communication. The communication between me and my manager. This will specifically look at the communication between an employee or an intern and his or her manager. This essay will also look at instances where a breakdown in communication may exist, especially between a manager and his or her staff member. More specifically, this essay will seek to find out how this relationship can be restored and improved in the event that there is a breakdown in communication. This is very important given that it will bring about some changes in the way people communicate. The personal nature of this essay arises from the fact that it is between me and my manager. According to Kaye (2014), there are four layers of adult communication which applies also to various levels ofmanagement systems. Various, Russian dolls are used as an analogy to bring out the picture of various communication competences(Marshall Cacioppe , 2017). These comprise of interperso nal, systems and competence, self among others. With this model, it is important to know that competences can occur just at any level within the model. Normally, there is often a major difference with regard to the perception that most if not all managers tend to have with respect to the type and level of communications that they as managers can have with their subordinates (Kaye, 2014). On the other hand, there is some level of communication that the subordinates themselves often perceive they can or may have with their managers. One thing that I first observed is that managers in the private sector are less the same as managers in the public sector. Those in the private sector do not converse more with their staffs than those managers in the public sector(Stock, 2015). On the other hand, it is also evident that neither do private employees show there is a significant communication that goes on between them and their managers. Situation Normally I have viewed my manager's communication as strict and authoritative. This has been my view and perception. The problem with this scenario is that it makes one build formed opinions about individuals thus bringing about elements of being judgmental on the part of staff members. This perception was formed a long time ago and has been in practice for quite some time. The origin of this perception began in the days when employees were viewed by senior staff as people who have no mental power. As such they could not express their thoughts and opinion. They were looked down upon. Servant leadership was lacking in this kind of arrangement. While this kind of belief and perception is discouraged today, it is still very common. The behavior of some managers still has a negative impact on the subordinate staff. This behavior and communication style has not changed much (Maxwell, 2014). Many managers still view those working under them as failures who could not rise up to higher posit ions. This is heavily impacting on the success of various organizations negatively. Managers still hold a lot of power of subordinates. This type of power is dictatorial. Employees have very little say in some organizations. Employees have little room and thus conveying their feelings becomes impossible given that in some instances when an employee conveys his or her feeling these actions are taken as rebellion. Victimization thus becomes the order of the day. However, with the emergence of specific reforms, this trend is changing fast. Organizations are beginning to see employees as valuable assets within the organization. The value of an organization lies in its employees. Thus employees need to be heard and treated with respect. Not with dictatorial tendencies. Kaye (2014) argues that AdultCommunication Management Model is best in serving as a major reference point for purposes of determining existing levels of communication. This is the only way in which desired changes may be brought to the people especially to the employees. In this particular event, the first competence doll which is the intrapersonal level and the second competence doll which is the interpersonal level with regard to the Russian Doll Analogy (Kaye, 2014), are some of the very important and very relevant. According to (Gallo, 2016), self-doll which is the smallest and the most innermost part of this model holds that it is important to understand and know one's self. Self-analysis becomes better with self-examination. This is very important given that people need to understand how they affect other either directly or indirectly with their speech or even actions. In this scenario, I had to examine my feelings at the workplace with regard to my relationship with my managers as far as our communication is concerned. It is possible for one to get traumatized and to lose focus and purpose going by the behavior and character of their managers (Jonnes, 2014). This is a serious concern given that manager's actions are often revealed through speech. This causes anxiety and fearfulness that makes employees to be less productive. The fear of getting victimized makes employees not to be innovative in the work place. The issue to do with strict adherence to protocol also leads to a lot of bureaucra cy which is not good for an organization. Decision One thing I have decided to do as an individual is to separate my manager's words from his personality. Managers personalities may not really bring out the real feeling of the manager. Various persons have various personalities and this is something that must be understood and examined. Personalities issue need not become obstacles at the workplace. Emotional states of managers may be communicated through nonverbal signals. This, if wrongly interpreted may bring about serious issues which have no basis. Conclusion This essay deals purely with my relationship with my manager at work. It also identifies how poor relationship can bring about low productivity within the workplace. More importantly, his essay is keen at separating personal traits from work since each and every individual has certain specific traits. These personal traits if not identified and treated differently may lead to various conflicts within the workplace. References Gallo, C. (2016). Crucial Conversations. New York: CRC Press. Jonnes, M. A. (2014). Speech and Power. Chicago: Oxford University Press. . Kaye, M. (2014). Chapter 9: Contemporary Perspectives of Human Communication. (2nd, Ed.) Australia: Frenchs Forest. Marshall , V., Cacioppe , R. (2017). A Survey of Differences in Communication between Managers and Subordinates. Leadership Organization Development Journal. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from Maxwell, J. C. (2014). The Art of Communication: A workplace practise. Chicago: CRC Press. Stock, D. (2015). Difficult Conversations. New York: Penguin .